姜渊.美国《清洁空气法》中的环境质量达标制度研究——以联邦与地方的权限为视角[J].中国环境管理,2018,10(4):122-128
美国《清洁空气法》中的环境质量达标制度研究——以联邦与地方的权限为视角
Research on the Environmental Quality Standard System in CAA: View from the Authorities of Federation and State
  
DOI:10.16868/j.cnki.1674-6252.2018.04.122
中文关键词:  清洁空气法  环境质量达标制度  联邦  地方  权限
英文关键词:CAA  environmental quality standard system  federation  state  jurisdiction
基金项目:2018年度杭州市社科常规性规划课题“《大气污染防治法》的法制模式研究——‘环境质量目标视角下的重构’”(Z18JC117)。
作者单位
姜渊 浙江财经大学, 浙江杭州 310018 
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中文摘要:
      虽然针对美国《清洁空气法》(CAA)的研究众多,然而诸多研究并未发掘至其之所以先进的核心。CAA之所以先进的关键在于重新分配法律(EPA是其代表)与州政府之间权力与义务的环境质量达标制度。CAA要求在联邦层面构建一个约束美国各州的大气环境质量标准体系,并且以各州的客观环境与发展程度为前提,赋予各州政府一系列的大气环境质量目标。各州政府需要在自身的权限范围内采取行动,从而为这一系列目标向联邦负责。CAA将自身的法律设置分为两大内容(或称两大原则):国家空气质量标准原则与州政府独立实施原则,并将两大原则转化为具体的程序:NAAQS与SIP。代表国家法律的环保署与代表实际环境义务承担者的州政府之间,是互相依赖又互相独立的关系。
英文摘要:
      Though many studies have been done on the US Clean Air Act (CAA), they have not found its core. The key to CAA is the environmental quality standard system which redistributes power and obligation between law (the EPA is its representative) and state government. The CAA requires a standard system of atmospheric environmental quality at the federal level. Based on the objective environment and development degree of the states, it gives each state government some atmospheric environmental quality objectives. State government needs to take action within its own jurisdiction to be accountable to the federal government for this set of goals. CAA divides its own legal establishment into two main contents (or two major principles):the principle of national air quality standard and the principle of independent implementation of state government. The two principles are translated into specific procedures:NAAQS and SIP. The EPA and the state are interdependent and independent.
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