潘兴良,徐琳瑜,杨志峰.生态补偿理论研究进展[J].中国环境管理,2016,8(6):32-37
生态补偿理论研究进展
A Review on the Theoretical Progress of Payments for Ecosystem Services
DOI:10.16868/j.cnki.1674-6252.2016.06.032
中文关键词:  生态补偿  生态服务供给  生态价值评估  生态经济学  理论框架
英文关键词:payments for ecosystem services  ecosystem services provision  ecosystem services evaluation  ecological economics  theoretical framework
基金项目:
作者单位E-mail
潘兴良 北京师范大学环境学院, 北京 100875
国家发展改革委西部开发司, 北京 100824 
 
徐琳瑜 北京师范大学环境学院, 北京 100875 xly@bnu.edu.cn 
杨志峰 北京师范大学环境学院, 北京 100875  
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中文摘要:
      生态补偿是生态经济学领域的一个研究热点,研究者、决策者和实践者都将生态补偿视为应对生态系统退化的有效政策工具。围绕生态补偿的定义、补偿客体、生态补偿主体、补偿标准和方式,学术界进行了大量研究,形成了市场交易、生态经济、税收补贴和社会制度等多种生态补偿理论框架。但是,由于这些理论存在不同程度的缺陷,在实践中难以避免挤出效应、外溢效应、交易费用高等问题,也不利于协调效率、效益和公平之间的关系。构建具有普遍适用性和可操作性的生态补偿理论框架,需要研究如何将生态服务纳入经济学的总供给和总需求分析模型,提出简便易行的生态服务价值综合评估方法,统一生态服务价值与经济领域价值计量的基础,从生态、经济和社会的综合维度研究针对不同生态服务补偿机制的有效尺度。
英文摘要:
      Payments for ecosystem services has long been a focus of research in ecological economics, and an effective policy tool to curb deteriorating ecosystem identified by scholars, policy makers, and practitioners. Therefore, great efforts have been made on defining payments for ecosystem services, identifying objects of payments, describing participants, exploring benchmarks for payments calculation, and developing ways for exchanging ecosystem services, resulting in many conceptual frameworks of payments for ecosystem services, such as Coasean Framework featuring market trade, Pigou Framework based on government intervention, Ecological Economics Framework, and Social Institutional Framework. However, the theoretical defects of these frameworks result them ineffective in avoiding high transaction cost, crowing out and leakage effects, coordinating efficiency, effectiveness and equity. To develop conceptual framework with feasibility and practicability, additional ecosystem services should be included in the gross supply and demand models of economics, simplified and practical method for comprehensively evaluating ecosystem services has to be created, accounting approach of ecosystem service value has to comply with economic principles, and a multiple perspective combining ecology, economy and society must be adopted for determining reasonable scale of different ecosystem services in studying payments for ecosystem services.
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