佘之祥.乡村在城镇化过程中受到的冲击及其发展问题[J].中国环境管理,2015,7(3):57-62,85
乡村在城镇化过程中受到的冲击及其发展问题
The Rural Areas Experiences Conflicts Under the Urbanization Process and its Development Issue
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  中国  城镇化  乡村  发展  冲击
英文关键词:China  urbanization  rural  development  pounding at
基金项目:
作者单位
佘之祥 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所, 南京 210008 
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中文摘要:
      中国是一个农业历史悠久的大国,乡村在社会中具有重要地位。通过近30多年的改革开放,乡村的建设和农业生产水平均有了显著的提高。但是在工业化、城镇化的浪潮下,乡村所受到的冲击十分剧烈。城镇化是经济与社会发展的强大动力,也是历史发展的必然趋势。城镇化进程有其客观规律,而且城市与乡村之间有着密切联系。因此,人为地阻挡城镇化不利于经济发展。然而,若不顾实际条件,不惜代价地加快城镇化进程,不仅难以保持和提高城市的经济发展和生活质量,而且对乡村的影响会更大。本文在论述中国1949年以来几个阶段城镇化特点的基础上,从近年来城乡差距与乡村人口劳动力的变化、土地高速非农化与粮食安全、乡村生态环境、乡村文化四个方面论述快速城镇化对乡村的冲击,并在此基础上讨论乡村的发展问题。根据上述乡村发展问题,本文提出若干意见,其中最要顾及的是新型城镇化进程中的乡村建设和农业生产。由于我国的自然条件、资源禀赋、各地的经济区位差异很大、发展的起点不同、进程有快慢、水平有高低,所以,以人为本的新型城镇化,特别要在城乡发展一体化的进程中,构建平等协调的城乡关系。各地城镇化的发展时序可有所不同,但必须因地制宜、同时做好乡村发展规划,力求农业现代化与工业化、信息化、城镇化同步,从而使农业和乡村经济得到持续发展。
英文摘要:
      Rural areas occupy very important status in Chinese society, which is famous for its agriculture in long history. It has seen obvious progress in both village construction and agricultural production over the last thirty years reform and opening. Meanwhile, rural areas also experiences serious conflicts under the developing wave of industrialization and urbanization. Urbanization is the strong driving force for economy and society development, which is the inevitable tendency and has its rule in history development. Therefore, It is unwise to resist urbanization. However, ignoring current conditions, urbanization development will not be sustainable and will produce negative impacts to rural areas. This paper discussed some issues of the gap between urban and rural areas, labor forces changes in villages, high speeding of unagricultural usage of lands, food safety, eco-environment of rural areas, village cultural construction, which have impacted the whole rural areas by urbanization based on periodical urbanization features since 1949. According to the above problems in rural areas, the paper proposed that the most important things to be considered are village construction and agricultural production in the process of new urbanization.Since there are many gaps among natural conditions, resources availability, economic location difference, different starting stages, processes, capability of development, an equal coordinated urban-rural relationship should be established. Although there might be some differences in developing series of urbanization, it must be adapted to rural conditions and development planning so as to get synchronization of the development on modernization, industrialization, information and urbanization of agriculture, which will ultimately contribute to sustainable development of agricultural and economic development in rural areas.
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